The fortress of Alanya, which is 6km long, enclosed by the fortress walls, stretches over the 10 hectares of the peninsula. It was the cradle of the Hellenistic, Roman, Byzantine, Selcuk, and the Ottoman civilizations.
There is currently no specific data as to by whom and when the fortress has been built, but the geographer Scylax reminds of it as of Coracesium back in 4th century B.C.. In his references and the memories, Strabon determines that this is the first city where you enter to Coracesium from the West of Kilikia that is truly hard to conquer since it is built on a steep rock.
In the II century B.C., Coracesium, due to the ease of its defense because of a natural defense even with a small number of the warriors became an ideal asylum and a central harbor for pirates and the rebels. The central fortress here has been inherited from the Arabian saint. A part of the Hellinistic wall, consisting of the large rocky blocks and connected with a solution until the Ehmedek, which dates back to the 2nd century B.C., has been inherited from the ruler of the city of that period - Diototos Tryphon.
In 65 BC, due to the victory of Pompey of Rome in the Corakesian War, the sovereignty of the pirates ends. During the period of the Roman Empire, the city grows due to an expansion of the fortress walls and the construction of the new buildings. During this period, the coins were minted in honour of the emperor. The samples of these coins can be seen in the museum of Alanya.
The Fortress of Alanya. In the Byzantine era, the city takes the name Kolonoros (a beautiful mountain). The city takes an important for the sailors and becomes the busiest sea port of the Mediterranean. The church in the citadel of the fortress, the Arabian shrine, the ruins of the monastery on the nose of Cilvarda, and the ruins of the fortress wall from the central Hisar to the inner citadel with a round tower, it all belongs to the Byzantine period.
Kalonoros. In 1221, the fortress has been transferred from its owner Cyrus Warth to the Selcuk sultan Alaaddin Keykubat I). The city has been renamed to Alaiye. Alaaddin Keykubat I expands a large construction activity, strengthens the old fortress walls, and builds the new ones. During this period the city of Alanya is experiencing its heyday. The city tower walls, large tanks, the shipbuilding docks, the Red Tower called Kizilkule, the Armory, the Akebe Trbesi grave, and the palace complex - these are just some of the works by Alaaddin Keykubat. Ehmedek, Masjid Aksebe, the mosque of Andizli, Celcuk bath, and the bath in the Lower Fortress - these are all buildings that belong to the particular Selcuk time period.
Along with the conquest of Alaiye, the state of Anatolian Selcuks, along with a strong fortress, has also won strong positions both at sea and upon the land of the Mediterranean coast. In terms of development of domestic, foreign, and the transit trade, Alanya reaches a very special position.
Alaiye. In the first half of the 14th century, the city became one of the main trading and naval bases of Anatolian Selcuks. The city takes a strong position in the field of trade and the ship building between Egypt and Syria, becoming one of the most important cities of Anatolia and the Mediterranean Sea. Along with the merchants from Egypt, who for the most part came for the cedar wood used in the ship building here in Alanya, the perchants from Genoa, Venice, and Florence also bought spices, flax, and sugar. In his work called "Practura della Mercatura", Pegolotti offers a table of weights and measures of Alanya for comparison with Italian measures and weights. The merchants from Egypt and Syria have travelled further on to the Black Sea ports through the sea routes of Alanya.
Alaiye. After the fall of the Anatolian Selcuk state, the city is passed under the rule of the Kingdom of Cyprus (1293) for a short tie, right after there comes a Karaman period, and the Alaiye princedom comes. Right then the city gets under the Ottoman rule (1471).
Alaiye. It is already after the announcement of teh Republic of Turkey at the request of Mustafa Kemal Ataturk who visited the city, the city's has been renamed to Alanya.
The fortress of Alanya takes a honourary place in the works of many local and the foreign travelers. Back in 1332, Ibn-Batuta mentions that the local forest is exported from Alanya to Alexandria, Dimyat, and the other cities of Egypt. By 1650s, Katip (enlightened) Celebi compared the magnificience of Alanya's fortress with Baghdad, describing that they grow cotton, silk, and sesame. In his notes from 1671, the Holy Celebi mentions that here in the center of the fortress (Orta Hisar) there are 300 houses, Suleymaniye Mosque, Masjid Akbese, one cistern, the houses without a backyard, and in the lower fortress part, there are 2 madrasas, 6 schools for children, 3 shopping centers, 1 bathhouse, 1 fountain and 150 shops. All the streets are paved with the stairs, the transportation is provided by the donkeys and the mullahs.
In his book, Setton Lloyd divides the Fortress of Alanya into 5 regions: from Kizilkule (Red Tower) to the ship docks in the shape of a crescent - the first region; the second region is a plot of land on the hill above the first, but a less inclined part of it; the third region is a place where Ehmedek is located and further on until the inner citadel's location - the citadel of the fortress; the fifth is a section that includes the Cilvarda's nose.
Kizil Kule (Red Tower) is a unique medieval defensive masterpiece of the Mediterranean of the 13th century: a harbor, shipyard, fortress of Alanya. This masterpiece was built during the reign of the Selcuk ruler, Alaaddin Keykubat I and the master of construction affairs from Aleppo called Edu Ali Reha el Kettani) for the defensive purposes to protect the city from the enemies coming from the sea.
With its impressive appearance Kizil Kule (Red Tower) has attracted attention both today and in the times of distant past, taking a truly important place in many treatises of that time. Quoting from the records of the 17th century travelery Evliya, the Holy Celebi: "From the side of the sea, the Fortress of Alanya has a reliable octagonal tower, which, at the time of the siege of the fortress can easily accommodate up to 2000 people, and in the second observation tower, it can fit up to 40 soldiers".
Due to all the features of the land site upon which the tower was built (it was built on the mainland rock), the western part of the tower is three meters shorter than the eastern one, which is 33 meters long. The foundation is made out of evenly cut out and interlocked quadrangular limestone slabs, the classic columns that serve as a secondary material, and the red brick that is used in the upper parts of the walls.
On the northern outer side of the building, there is an inscription that says "Glory to Allah", and right under it, at the level of about 10 meters in height, there is an inscription in four lines with the name Alaaddin Keykubat and the date of construction, which indicates 1226. On the southern wall, there is another inscription that speaks of the building. On the right wall from the entrance, there is an inscription of the master who has built the building with his name. On Kizil Kule (Red Tower), there are 56 observation towers (watchtowers): they are built in such special way, so one can easily beat off the enemy by pouring the boiling tar and the boiling water on them from above. There are 22 holes for the boiling tar there, as well as for the boiling water, and also 6 gargoyles.
Kizil Kule has an octahedral shape. From the outside, it seems that this is a rather simple structure, and inside it is a rather complicated structure. Kizil Kule consists out of five floors: the ground floor, the first floor, a suspended floor, an open floor and the open terrace.
Despite a rather impressive view, the entrance to the building, probably due to strategic considerations, is rather inconscicuous. Through a rather small door, through narrow corridors you can reach the basement floor. A vaulted corridor surrounds the octahedral pillar. According to Ibrahim Hakki Konyali, at first, the ground and the first floors, from the beginning of the vaulted corridor and up to the upper cover, were used for the resting of the guard. Yet, today only the traces of the rather low wooden rooms have preserved. Currently, the basement is used as an exhibition hall.
In the upper part of the central column of the first flor, which can be reached by the high rocky stairs, there is a cistern. Even in our days, this tank is fully functional and is located on the floor. The neck of the tank is constantly open.
On the floor of the corridor that is close to the cistern, so that they coincide with the edges of the octahedrons, ventilation shafts have been installed. The door to the northwest of the floor, which is used as a gallery today, opens onto the outer walls. On the right of the fortress wall, you can see the graffiti of a large ship.
On the suspended floor, in the form of a narrow corridor, there are special holes for the boiling tar and water. In the middle of an open terrace, there is a neck of the tank, around which there are 16 ventilation shafts in two rows. The light that enters through these pipes is reaching towards the ground floor.
Earlier, in front of the Kizil Kule there was a small tower called Egri Kule (A Curved Tower), which served as an entrance door to the sea. The tower, the ruins of which have survived to our times, has been connecting to Kizil Kule through the tunnel. On the north side of Kizil Kule, there is a hub, the outer walls of which are destroyed. The tunnel reaches the sea and there are the docks that are built in front of it. According to the results of the research, the ships of the Selcuks' ships have provided themselves with food, water, warriors, and the weapons with the help of these docks. In the available drawings for the construction of the port from one of the latest periods of Ottoman Empire rule, there is a use of a term called "the source of water on the tunnel surface". The part of a tunnel has been destroyed in order to lay a road there. For the sake of safety, all communications with the ships have been provided through the tunnel with portable bridges and the stairs. The corridors from the ruined tower behind Kizil Kule and the docks are still preserved and can be seen.
The fortress walls of the sea port were built in the period of Alaaddin Keykubat I's rule. The fortress of Alanya forms a majestic profile from the side of the sea with such monumental buildings as Kizil Kule, shipyard, and the armory. Alanya, as a port city, began its heyday in the Ancient era and has reached its peak in the Middle Ages. The city was considered one of the busiest sea ports in the eastern Mediterranean. The merchants from Egypt, Genoa, and Venice were always seen here. On the various walls of Alanya fortress's walls, there are lots of graffiti ships of the various epoches that act as the silent witnesses of Alanya's sea connections and the history.
The fountain was discovered during the landscape works. The graffiti of the ship was discovered on the surface of the fountain - a distinctive feature of the Fortress of Alanya.
The talk goes about the buildings made of rubble, Khorosan plaster, and the bricks. On the fortress walls of the rooms that are stuck to each other and face the sea, the arches of which have collapsed, there are arched openings that are visible. From the chronicles of the travellers, such as Ibn-Batuta and Evliya (Holy) Celebi, one can learn quite a lot about the port past of Alanya. According to the stories of the travelers, this was a lively port city, which has often been visited by the merchants from Egypt, Venice, and Genoa. Consequently, it can be assumed that the city also fulfilled a certain role of the warehouses. In his book, Ibrahim Hakki Konyali describes that in the former times there was a wide jetty between the shipyard and the Kizil Kule, which has been guarded by Kizil Kule and the armory (Topkhane). The author claims that the warehouses from the side of the city stored diverse materials for the ships, food, and ammunition, yet currently a part of the pier and the warehouses are destroyed.
Above the narrow door of the shipyard, which can be entered from the northwest of the old port, an embossed inscription of five lines instantly catches the eye. In the first line of the inscription, which makes an ode to the sultan of land and two seas, between the two icons, one can find the arms of Alaaddin I. On the left side of the entrance, there is a 5-window masjid. The rooms on the right side of the entrance were used by the shipyard clerks and as service premises. During the masjid repair and reconstruction works, in the framework of the Maritime Project and the Ship Museum, on two opposite walls, they have discovered the Zulfikar frescoes that symbolize justice of the Prophet Ali (Hz. Ali).
The shipyard consists of 5 valuted rooms, which are divided among themselves by the means of walls with the sharp arches. The walls are made of rubble, now the arches are made of bricks. Now the holes in these arches contribute to the appearing of daylight in the rooms and coming out of the smoke from the premises. In the third room, on the land side, there is a well with a fresh water. In order to keep the level of the rock cut, the building of the shipyard is built on the different levels. Illumination of one of the warehouses, carved into into the rock adjacent to the shipyard, occurs due to the hole that is made in the ceiling.
The shipyard of Alanya is not only a place of shipbuilding, but also a harbor for the wintering of the ships, their repairment, and the forging works for installation of the sails and rigging. In addition, it also served as the permanent place of administrative and the storage facilities. The permanent shipyards are used for two purposes: the first is construction of the large ships in the winter period, the other one is the use of it as a haven for the ships that have been decommissioned. Now speaking of the enemy fleets and pirates, the search for strategic places for the profitable trading always made Alanya profitable in this regard. The shipyard, which was part of a complex consisting of two towers of the fortress walls was more than just convenient in terms of defense against the enemies. In his book about the fleet (Kitab-i Bahriye) Piri Reis writes that the shipyard was constantly under the auspices of the Fleet COmmander. The shipyard also continued to operate during the Selcuk period, and during the reign of the Karamanogullari and the Pricipality of Alaiye. It is important to note that the ships were built here during the role of the Ottoman Empire as well. The shipyard where the ships continued to be built and repaired until the 1960's, serves as a museum today.
The armory, built of rubble, serves the role of guarding the port and the shipyard from the south-west. Armory is 19 meters high and consists of two floors. It is connected to the main fortress wall through a vaulted corridor. On the tower floor, from the side of the sea, there are two rooms with high ceilings and with one window in each room from which both the land and the sea views can be seen. In front of the premises, to the right and to the left, there is one window, which is known locally as the "devil's holes". Right from there, a long corridor leads to the exist in the direction of the mountains. Through the corridor one can get to the second floor of the tower where there are three rooms on each side of the entrance. On this floor, there are four rooms with the arched entrances each on three sides. Now the internal partitions of the rooms and the arches of the entrances are made of brick. On the left side of this floor is a water tank. This has made it possible for the attendants and the guards to meet their drinking water needs.
On the north side of the armory, there are the remains of five columns and one female statue. On the east side there are four marble columns that are probably of a foreign origin. The bases of the tar-and-boiling water trenches are on the north and south sides of the fortress and are decorated with the statues of lions. On the north side of the tower, there are inscriptions on the wall. This particular inscription states that the armory was built two years after Kizil Kule and that it was built by the sultan of the land and two seas - by Alaaddin Keykubat I. There are two more inscriptions on the tower from the side of the sea. In his book about Alanya that was published in 1946, Ibrahim Hakki Konyali writes that the old Alanyans mention that there are still cannon balls at the top of the armory. Evliya Holy Celebi states: "This grand and majestic tower is equipped with the Balyemez cannons (meaning the one who does not taste honey), which guard the shipyard and the port".
The Mahalla district - Tophane is an ordniary street in Alanya. Recently there is a demand for traditional old houses of Alanya, they are being reconstructed. All of the houses that are build on a rather uneven surface have a sea view. Due to the lack of the natural water resources, the tanks with drinking water are installed next to each traditional house. In the 1600s, Evliya Holy Celebi describes that transportation was provided by the mullahs. Back in 1810, Martin Lick says in his notes that he was struck in awe by the way with what level of skill the houses were, the fact that the houses in Alanya were made with the subsequent increase in floors, in the form of terraces. He was also surprised by teh fact that this height is so steep that when you look away from the last house, it seems that all the houses are built on top of each other on a flat wall. The houses are built in one row as they form either an entrance of the house built above, or a small street due to the peculiarities of the roof plane.
Here, the traveler will be able to see the old traditional houses of Alanya, the 13th-century masjid, the Andizli mosque and the wooden minaret mosque, the Hagios Constantinous church and the Mikhail Archangelos church, a restored and turned into a botique hotel old fisherman's house, and a pumpkin processing workshop. Only here in Alanya they are skilled and busy with the applied art handicrafts from a special sort of a pumpkin. The friendly people and a view of the sea is a typical day in Alanya, which is offered by the Top-khane district. In addition, you can also see the unique endemic species of the butterflies and the plants, which are typical only for the Fortress of Alanya.
The fates are on the path that demarcates the Red Tower with the Top-Khane district. The gates received their name from the fact that the Ancient Alanya has carried its departed through these doors, and on the slab for the departed, which is behind the door, they sang a funeral prayer for the departed. In the old days, due to the fact that Kizil Kule and the weapons area were located in the same territory of the port trade and defense, there were also residential premises in the Top-Khane district. Therefore, these doors were used only by the military, representatives of the naval fleet, and the port staff.
The cistern (tank) dates back to the 13th century, the period of the Selcuk rule. The tank is built of rubble and mortar, consisting of two adjacent vaulted rooms. During the restoration works, two arched openings have been found that were conneted by premises, which were bricked up later. The walled holes were cleared on the roof and the surrounding area during restoration and archaeological excavations. Right after the restoration has been completed, the various exhibitions have been held in the historic cistern building.
The water in the fountain of the 13th century of the Selcuk era comes from a source that is outside the fortress wall. Behind the fountain is a tank for collecting water that is built of bricks. Presumably, the water from here goes through the terracotta pipes to the fountain and to the cisterns of the historic bath. On the front of the fountain there is an inscription of the Selcuk era. It is known that this fountain has helped the population of the fortress to satisfy their needs for the fresh water.
During the restoration work, a certificate of merit has been found that dates back to the Early Roman Empire. As a result of the excavations near the Girena fountain, along the footpath leading to the fountain, a staircase of seven steps was found, as well as another room, the southern and the eastern walls of which have been partially preserved.
Only the southern and the northern sides of the walls are partially preserved today. The south and the west sides of the building walls are sent upon a natural rock. In front of the building, at a height of 60 cm, there are platforms that are carved from the natural stone on which they have the vats installed to drain the grape juice with the help of gutters of the baked clay: 2 in the west and 3 in the north. Perhaps, following these discoveries, as well as according to information received from the local population, there was a Sirahane (the squeezer for the grape juice) or Sirahmana (a place for the molasses cooking). Near the Sirahane there are ruins of an unknown origin and structure that can be seen, the buildings made of rubble with woody inserts, the remnants of the southern and the western walls, plastered with the limestone mortar. The floor of the building is covered with wood.
This building, due to a historical bath located under it, is also called a house with a bath. This object is under the asuspicses of the Office of Culture and Tourism of the Municipalty of Alanya, as well as under the chairmanship of the Fortress and the Squares of Alanya. The Alanya house is a structure built at the beginning of the 20th century from rubble and the wooden architecture of Baghdadi, using the traditional for these places Khorosan mixture of mortar and plaster. After the house was presented to the Alanyan Municipality by its owners, it was renovated according to all the rules. The house went into operation in 2009, the interior was kept in the original, including the ceiling and the wardrobes, among the other cultural and daily life features.
During the restoration works of the traditional Alanya house with the participation of the Ministry of Culture and the Squares, right under the concrete-reinforced compounds, they have found the remains of the coatings of the cold apart of the bath, in the southern part of which the excavations were started. During the excavations, the remnants of the unknown fragments have been found under the toothed coatings of the plastered rooms. These were the pieces of sail, ropes, and the other marine accessories, allegedly used in the shipbuilding.
It is known that the building, which is located on the lower fortress area, in the south of Kizil Kule, with the traditional Alanya house at the top, is used as the bathhouse for the resdents of the market (Carsi Hamam). The bath, built with the help of crushed stones, brick, and the limestone mortar, has been repaired in the Republic period with the use of cement mortar with concrete. Here they have: in the middle of a structure - a dome, heated with a full width that also as a double drain system. The hot room, starting from the 12th century and up to 20th century, had a standard quadrangular shape, with a regulated system, just like all Turkish baths, in the middle of which there is a dome, the space for bathing at the edges and the small domes in each chamber, also used for the bathing purposes. The room has bene lit by the holes in the ceiling, called the "eyes of the elephant". Back in the 13th century, the water in the bath came from a source located behind the Girene fountains, which also supplied water beyond the fortress walls. The historical bath has been in operation until 1960 under the control of the house owners located above the bath.
These are the 400 meters long structures built at the end of the peninsula, on the steep cliffs of the Silvadri nose. Despite the fact that they are called "the mint yard" among the locals, it is not really possible to mint the coins in a building that is made of rubble. One of the stone buildings that dates back to 11th century, is a small church, while the other, most likely, served as a monastery. The dome of the little church stands on a leg structure.
This particular facility is located in the northern part of Alanya's fortress. Built for strategic purposes, it consists of two rooms, each of which is built upon the three towers. The construction was built on the ruins of the Hllenistic period during the reign of Alaaddin Keykubat I, one year after the construction of Kizil Kule. In the construction of the walls, they used the stones of a larger size than the previous ones. On the outer surface of the western tower, there is an inscription in the frame. The main entrance to the fortress is located in the eastern part of the building. On the western side, at the bottom of the wall at the entrance, there are fragments of the masonry wall of the Hellenistic period. During the reign of Kanuni, most of the Ehmedek was destroyed by an earthquake.
The lighthouse was built by the son-in-law vizier of Nevsehir Ibrahim Pasha (general) in the 18th century. The lighthouse has acquired its present appearance in the Republic period. At the moment, the management of this rectangular structure, consisting of two premises, has been transfered to tehe Ministry of Transport Department. The lighthouse is set on the eastern part of the fortress wall.
The square construction is located in the southwest of the Suleymaniye Mosque. The talk goes of a construction made of rubble stone and the brick where the main entrance is located in the east. Passing through the vaulted, mirror-like, brick-laid "eyvan", one can get into the courtyard. Oppposite to the entrance, there is an enclosed room laid out of brick, which is divided by four columns in the same row, on the ceiling of which there is a hole for lighting. It is assumed that this room was used as a shed or as a storage room. Along the long edges of the courtyard, there are nine chambers with low arches.
It consists of four roomrs that are made of volumnious arches on both sides, which extend to the northwest of a single room, located on the southern tip with an east-west direction.
For construction purposes, they used the crushed stone (rubble stone), the upper masonry walls are with the flattened arches. The foundation of the Arastan is filled with rubble and stones. It has an appearance of a tomb. Currently, it is completely overgrown with grass.
The building is currently in a poorly preserved form, since in some places there are visible signs of destruction. This place and building is under the protection and asuspices of the Alanya's Municipality.
One of the archtectural structures of the Celcuk period of the Alanya fortress that is dated 13th century back. The one-story domed Masjid is built of rubble (rubble stone) and the brick, using the special masonry techniques. The inner walls of the building are made using the firing and scraping techniques. About 170 graffiti ships have been found here that can shed light on the history of navigation in Alanya.
Due to the fact that there are no natural water sources in the territory of Alanya, the demand for the fresh drinking water has been satisfied by collecting the rain water, which was drained into the tanks. Even in our times, this tradition is still preserved in Alanya. One can see the installed water tanks next to every traditional house in Alanya. Along with this, there also existed large tanks that provided a common water supply. The citadel, where such large water cistern is installed, bears its name as Sarnich Fortress Cistern. Most of these cisterns date back to the 13th century.
The Mecduddin Cistern is located in the Hisarici district and dates back to the 13th century, being an architectural construction by the Selcuks. The outer walls of a square vaulted room are slightly elevated, delimited by the rubble walls. From the inside, the building is lined with the bricks and plastered with the Horosan plaster. On the west side, there is a small room, the walls of which are somewhat raised and the cistern has an U shape to it. On the upper surface, there are three water suction pipes and one pipe that is a water drain pipe.
The gate is located near the tunnel in the Hisarici district of the Alanya's Fortress. The other name for it is the Market Gate - this is the Main Gate of Alanya. The construction dates back to the 13th century and served as an outpost of entry and exist into the city, also serving both military and ceremonial purposes. The main gate and the turrets right behind them are one of the most important elements here. The walls that are decorated with white and red mural in a checkerboard pattern are quite traditional for Alanya. The main gate was built in 1230, which is confirmed by the inscription on the gate. The walls were given to the Treasury at the disposal of the Municipality of Alanya. After the restoration of the towers and the fortress walls, the gate is used as a visitors information center.
The palace was built by Alaaddin Keykubat. The palace in the citadel of the fortress was used as a palace pavilion. Currently, it is a plane made out of various ruins in the southeast corner of the fortress. The structure of the palace: on the south-western edge is a wall that forms a kind of a terrace and is separated from the other rooms. It is assumed that, as in all the palaces of the 13th century, the main material used in the construction works was wood, the decoration used ceramics, frescoes, and the Selcuk's arts of woodcarving. On the north side of the palace, a ceremonial hall is supposedly located in the inner courtyard, and a church takes its place between the vaulted room and the front courtyard.
The city of Alanya is famous for its rich history. Proof is this is a city museum, which consists of two sections. These sections contain archeological excavations related to the Gallic period, the times of the Roman Empire, Ancient Byzantium, and the later period of history as well. In 1967, two demonstration halls of the museum were open for visiting where they have displayed different archeology and ethnography items.
The locals in Alanya treat their history with great care, honour the traditions, and do their best to preserve them. The townspeople scrupulously collected the archaeological finds, which eventually made it necessary to create a museum, as a result of which, the Archaeological Museum has been open. Due to the incompleteness of the archaeological excavations in the region of Alanya, there remained a gap in the definition of the chronology of the objects. By the opening of the museum, the missing exhibits were borrowed from the Museum of Anatolian Civilizations of the city of Ankara. The periods of the early Bronze Age, the Urartu, Phrygia, and Lucia states were presented for all the art afficionados to the full extent. Among the collection of the museum you can get acquainted with the letters written in the Phrygian langauge, which were discovered in the vicinity of Anatolia and that date back to 625 BC. Also, in the museum there are most valuable and precious works of bronze, marble, baked clay, glass put on display, as well as the writing in the language of Karamanids, a mosaic dated back to 7-5 centuries BC. The exhibition of the museum is complemented by a showcase display of the coins that belong to the Ancient Greek period, the Roman, Byzanyine, Selcuk, and the Ottoman empires, as well as the coins from the period of the proclamation of the Republic of Turkey.
In the ethnography hall, there are works of the Turkish-Islamic times. Namely, the textbooks and the equipment belonging to this period that were given to the museum by the Office of Primary Education. These artifacts were collected in the vicinity of Alanya and they reflect the ethnographic features of life of the local population, as well as the works of hand-made folk art. Here they have the handicraft carpets, clothing, original embroidery, the weapons, and teh everyday items, decorations, and the different decorative items. All this is put on display in the cabin that is decorated in the style of a typical house that is inherent in Alanya. In the ethnography department there is also the most interesting exhibition item - a part of an old Alanya house, which has been transported here in separate parts and assembled together again.
In the courtyard of the museum there are stone monuments and the mosaics that represent the Roman, Byzantine and Islamic times. In the museum itself and in the garden of the museum, there are numerous vessels for ashes, which became a symbol of the museum. As a rule, these are the local items that were used in the Kililia region and they are made of limestone and are associated with the burial custom that once existed here. The locals, knowing how difficult it is to dig up the earth in the steep rocks, burned the deceased, and placed the ashes in the special vessels of limestone, which was abundant in this area. The burning of the deceased was supposed to bring immortality to one's relatives, and, at the same time, was a testimony of respect. The vessels for ashes of the various sizes, relating mainly to the Roman and Byzantine periods, are made in the form of a sarcophagus with the lids having the form of a saddle. On the wide walls of many vessels, there are various patterns, garlands, and the lotus motifs that reflect the rich vegetation of the area. On the other vessels one an see schematic images of female and male faces between the garlands. On the very few vessels there are ancient Greek inscriptions. There are also images of horseman, Eros, and Medusa. The images of male and female faces is a characteristic feature of the sculptural work of the Kilician region.
A truly interesting exhibition item is a bronze statue of Hercules. The sculpture has a height of 51.5 cm. It was first discovered in 1967, in about 35km northeast of Alanya in the mountain town called Asartepe. The ancient name of the place of discovery is still unknown. It is assumed that the monument, as a trophy from some ship or from some other locality, has been brought here by the once ruling pirates who dominated the mountainous Kilikia region. The status is dated back to II century A.D.. Moreover, a press for grapes and the other agricultural machinery has been recreated in the courtyard.
Opening hours: Tuesday - Sunday / 8.00 - 12.00, 13.00 - 17.00. There is an entrance fee.
A branch of the Archaeological Museum of Alanya is located on the lower floor of the tower where an exhibition of the ethnogrpahic values of the area is opened for the visitors. Among the exhibition items you can see the clothes of the Ottoman era, hand-woven textiles, weaving machines, and many other handicraft goods. Currently, the majestic Kizil Kule (Red Tower) looks just as if it was recently built. Kizil Kule is a true symbol of the city. The Red Tower is considered as one of the most remarkable architectural structures in Alanya.
Opening hours: Tuesday - Sunday / 8.00-12.00, 13.30 - 17.00. There is an entrance fee.
It is very unlikely that it is possible to find anything like the Ataturk cult in the modern Alanya that is based on love and respect. This is the official cult. Kemal Ataturk's biography is read by the Turkish people with genuine care and sincere love. More than half of a century after the president's death, his admirers, with a bated breath, speak of the piercing gaze of his blue eyes, his tireless energy, iron determination, and the relentless will. The house in which the founder of the Republic of Turkey has lived on February 18, 1935, became the "Ataturk House Museum" in Alanya. This house has been given to the Ministry of Culture by the host called Tevfik Azakoglu and the first visitors have seen the museum in 1987. Ataturk's personal belongings are exhibited on the first floor, the photographs, a telegram sent by him to the citizens of Alanya, and the other historical documents. On the second floor, you will be able to get acquainted with the peculiarities of life of Alanya's locals that are typical for this region of Turkey.
There are also the monuments of Kemal Ataturk and the main street is named after him in Alanya. On one of the monuments in the center of the city, Ataturk stands on a large round pedestal. Next to him - there are two small children - a symbol of the future of Turkey. At the bottom of the monument, you cna read the famous phrase that belongs to Kemal Ataturk. It says: "Peace in the country, peace in the whole world." Thanks to its "strategic" location, the monument has become a popular meeting place among the tourists and the residents of Alanya as well. After the restoration of the bay and the park area, another Kemal Ataturk monument has been built, but it is much smaller in size. It was installed in the opposite side or directly in front of the famous Red Tower (Kizil Kule) in Alanya.